Wide application of sewers in LIAs is not realistic in thecoming decade because of high costs. On the other hand,on site solutions (pit latrines, ecosan) are much dependent on the interested of individual users for removal of faecal sludge (FS) and urine from their surroundings which may
lead to groundwater pollution and public health risk. Hence,demonstrating an innovative and sustainable (in economic and ecological terms) sanitation value based approach is considered
key to promote a breakthrough in sanitation improvementacceleration in Nakuru and other parts of Kenya.